LaMeD Academy

Glossary - Jewish Hebrew

A religion developed among the ancient Hebrews and marked by belief in one God who is creator, ruler and redeemer of the universe and by the moral and ceremonial laws of the Old (First) Testament and rabbinic traditions.

At the end of this Glossary are The Books of the Original Testament, Transliteration of Hebrew Names, Tribes and the Tractates of the Mishnah.

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Numbers correspond to the Strong's Concordance. 


Adar - Sixth month of Hebrew civil calendar: February-March.

Afikoman (al. Afikomen) - This word, from the Greek meaning "after-dish," refers to the last morsel eaten at the seder--half of the central matzah broken off and put away at the beginning of the meal...Greek word meaning that which comes after. It is represented in a broken piece of matzah wrapped in linen and buried (hidden)...A Greek word meaning "dessert." This piece of the ceremonial matzah is the final thing eaten at the Passover seder meal.

Aggadah (al. Agada, Agadah) pl. Agadot - stories, parables. Aggadah or Haggadah: The no legal contents of the Talmud and Midrash, including the ethical and moral teachings. This information is usually given in the form of parables, stories, and legends that are used as teaching tools.

Agunah - A woman whose husband had disappeared, and who could not remarry without witnesses to his death....bound woman.

Aiyin Ra’ah: A Hebrew term meaning bad eye, which describes a person being stingy

Aiyin Tovah: A Hebrew term meaning good eye, which describes a person being generous.

Akedah (al. Akeida) - Binding an animal for sacrifice; specifically, Abraham's binding of Isaac for sacrifice to G-d--not consummated...The binding of the sacrifice.

Akkum: A non-Jew who does not observe the Noachide Laws

Al Chet - Literally: for the sin; an important Yom Kippur prayer listing sins for which we beg forgiveness.

Al Hanisim (al. Ha-nissim) - thanksgiving for the miracles added to prayer and grace after the meal on the festivals of Hanukah and Purim.

Al Mikrah Megillah - the blessing before the reading of the Megillah.

Al Netilat Yadayim - the blessing over the washing of hands before the meal.

Alenu Leshabe'ach - a prayer of thanksgiving for being separated from the heathens.

Aliyah pl. Aliyot - Literally: going up. To "have an aliyah" refers to the honor of being called up to the bimah to recite or chant the blessings over the Torah. To "make aliyah" or "go on aliyah" means to immigrate to Israel.

Almoners or Parnasin (Parnas): Members of an ancient synagogue whose responsibilities included caring for the poor and distributing alms.

Am haaretz - peasantry. Used by the Talmud and thereafter to mean ignorant....people of the land. Am-Ha-Eretz: The ancient Jewish concept of the "common people" (literally "the people of the land"), as opposed to the religiously pious, who practiced the rituals and tithing laws.

Amidah - standing prayer, quietly murmured, that is part of each daily service, alternatively called the Tefillah or the Shemoneh Esre...a prayer, recited silently, thrice daily, while standing up, the prayer of the eighteen benedictions. Amora pl. Amoraim - Speaker, interpreter; expounder of Talmudic (Mishnaic) law from compilation of Mishnah to redaction of entire Talmud, in Babylon (where the amoraim were known as Mar or Rav) and in Palestine (where they were designated Rabbi). Their discussions and teachings, 220-550, form the Gemara, lengthier sections of the Talmud that follow each Mishnah.

Ancient of Days: A Hebraic title for God, or the Messiah of God, found in Daniel 7:9

Anenu - a passage added to prayer on public fast days.

Ani Ma'amin - Literally: I believe; often sung at the seder and at Yom Hashoah observances in memory of Holocaust victims who sang this song of faith on their way to their deaths.

Anshei K'neset Hagdolah - Sages of the Great Synod during the first part of the Second Sanctuary Period.

Antinomianism: The belief that faith frees a person from all obligations to observe the Law of God. Also, an attitude of hostility toward God’s Law.

Apocalyptic - Ideas and teachings pertaining to the revelation (apocalypse) of the last days and the end of the world.

Apocrypha - A Greek adjective in the neuter plural (from apokruphos, “hidden, concealed”) denotes strictly “things concealed.” Old Testament Apocrypha, specifically the fourteen books written after the Old Testament canon was closed and which, being the least remote from the canonical books, laid strongest claim to canonicity...The body of Jewish literature written between the second century B.C. and the second century A.D., not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible.

Apostate - One whose actions are not consistent with the standards of behavior set by his religious community.

Aravah pl. Aravot - willow branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Arba'ah Minim (al. the Four Species) - Palm, myrtle, willow and citron; another name for the lulav and etrog together, used on Sukkot.

Aron Hakodesh - Literally: the Holy Ark; the special cabinet in which the Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue; the Holy Ark is called Heichal in Sephardic synagogues.

Ascetic: One who renounced social life and comfort for solitude, self-mortification, and religious devotion. Often these individuals practiced a life-style resembling that of a hermit or recluse.

Aseret Yemei Teshuvah - the ten days of penitence.

Asham - A guilt offering made by one who has sinned against his fellow man.

Ashkenazi pl. Ashkenazim - Referring to Jews of Central and Eastern European origin.

Ashrey - Psalm 145 recited thrice daily.

Assumption of Moses: A composite Jewish writing containing a speech of Moses to Joshua, an account of the death of Moses, and other ancient stories.

Atah Chonantanu - a passage added to the evening prayer after the Sabbath to note the difference between the Sacred and the non-Sacred.

Athid Lavo - The coming age.

Atzeret - Conclusion; used for concluding observance of festival; word derived from "gathering" or "detention," original meanings. Shemini Atzeret is concluding day of Sukkoth; Atzeret is Talmudic term for Shavuot, conclusion of Omer count...A festive gathering for the conclusion of a festive season, a concluding feast.

Aufruf - Calling up of the bridegroom or bridal couple for the Torah blessings on the Shabbat preceding their wedding.

Av - Eleventh month of Jewish year.

Av Beit Din (al. Bayt, Bet) - Father of the court--judicial president in Talmudic era, and later.

Av Harachamim - a prayer for the persecuted communities.

Avelut - third period of mourning; the first year after death.

Avinu Malkenu - Literally: our Father, our King; a prayer of supplication recited on Yom Kippur...a prayer said on the Days of Penitence and fast days.

Avodah (al. Abodah) - Service--specifically, the sacrificial Temple service as performed by high priest; today, referring to Yom Kippur observance and other synagogue rituals. Chasidic concept of life dedicated to G-d.

Azarah pl. Azarot - the Temple Courtyard. Ezrat Nashim - the outer Courtyard in the Sanctuary.

Azazel - Meaning unknown; Talmud thus denotes the mountain on which scapegoat is sent, to carry people's sins into the wilderness, on Yom Kippur.

Azharot - a passage on the commandments in the Torah read on Shavuot.

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Badeken - Traditional formal veiling of the bride by the groom before the wedding ceremony.

Bamah pl. Bamot - an improvised altar, outside the Sanctuary.

Bar Enash: The individual in Jewish literature who is more than a human judge, who sits on the throne of God and separates the righteous from the wicked, and who is involved in the Messianic concepts of ancient Judaism.

Bar Kokhba (al. Kochba) - Leader of a Jewish revolt (132-135) against Hadrian.

Bar / Bat (al. Bas) Mitzvah - Literally: son / daughter of the commandment; ceremony marking a youngster's reaching the age of religious majority, traditionally thirteen for boys and twelve for girls; in many congregations, thirteen for girls as well.: The ceremony of the coming of age to perform the commandments, goes through a ritual of acceptance by the community.

Baraita - An Aramaic term for a statement of law, historical or aggadic tradition which is attributed to the tannaitic period but which is not contained in the Mishnah.

Barchu - call upon the congregation to bless G-d.

Barech - grace...the part of the Seder when the grace after the meal is recited.

Baruch Dayan Ha'emet - a blessing of acceptance of G-d's judgments.

Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo - a phrase of blessing of G-d's Name upon hearing it uttered.

Basar - #1319. basar, baw-sar'; a prim. root; prop. to be fresh, i.e. full (rosy, fig. cheerful); to announce (glad news):--messenger, preach, publish, shew forth, (bear, bring, carry, preach, good, tell good) tidings....Good news (same as gospel).

Bat Kol - an "echo" of a Divine Voice.

Batlanim - male householders who had leisure to give themselves to regular attendance. A scholarly Jewish teacher who in ancient days was either independently wealthy or on some type of support so he could be available to provide the congregation with accurate academics and answers.

Bedikat Chametz - Search for leaven before Passover...casting out the leaven.

Beha'alotcha - a portion in the Book of Numbers.

Bein Hametzarim - the period between the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av, "Between the Fences".

Beinoni pl. Beinonim - of median piety.

Beit Din (al. Bayt, Bet) - "House of Judgment [Law]" Jewish court employing religious and Talmudic law...Rabbinical court.

Beit haMikdash (al. Bayt, Bet) - House of Sanctity; synagogue...The sanctuary or Temple in Jerusalem.

Beit haShoevah (al. Bayt, Bet) - The House of the Waterpouring.

Beit Midrash (al. Bayt, Bet) pl. Batey Midrashot - Houses of Study.

Ben-ha-keneset: A term used to distinguish the regular members of a synagogue from the exalted leaders, who were known as scholars or scribes.

Ben Noah: A non-Jew who observes the Noachide Laws.

Berachah (al. Brachah) pl. Berachot (al. pl. Brachot, Birchot) - a blessing, benediction.

Berachot Hashachar (al. Birchot, Brachot) - the blessings of awakening recited each morning.

Berit, B'ris - Literally: covenant; refers to the covenant between G-d and Abraham and his descendants.

Berit Milah - often referred to simply as b'ris.

Beshalach - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Bet Midrash: A house of study or investigation that was a part of or adjacent to an ancient synagogue.

Betzah - roasted egg, a symbol for the second sacrifice of Passover.

Beyn - #996. beyn, bane (sometimes in the plur. masc. or fem.); prop. the constr. contr. form of an otherwise unused noun from H995; a distinction; but used only as a prep., between (repeated before each noun, often with other particles); also as a conj., either . . . or:--among, asunder, at, between (-twixt . . . and), + from (the widest), X in, out of, whether (it be . . . or), within.

Bikkur - examining or investigating.

Bikkur Cholim (al. Holim) - Visiting the sick--a pious duty, carried out in the past by Chevra Kadisha.

Bikkurim (al. Bikurim) - the Offering of the First Fruit.

Bimah - The raised platform in the synagogue from which the Torah is read and from which worship services are usually conducted; the platform is called tevah in Sephardic synagogues...Reader's stand in synagogue.

Birkat Hachodesh - the blessing of the New Moon.

Birkat haMazon - Benediction over food; grace after meals.

Birkat HaMinim - 90 CE decree.

Bitul Torah - the neglect of the study of the Torah.

Bi'ur Ma'asrot - the disposal of tithes.

Bo - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Boethuseans - A religious party of the first century composed of wealthy and influential members of the priesthood, similar in doctrine with the Sadducees.

Boneh Yerushalayim - the blessing over the rebuilding of Jerusalem.

Book of Jubiliees: A pseudepigraphical work sometimes called the Lesser Genesis, consisting of a history of mankind as related to Moses by an angel with dates centered around the years of Jubilee.

Bore Nefashot - a short blessing after the eating of food that does not require Birkat Hamazon.

Bore Peri Ha'etz - the blessing over fruit of the tree.

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C.E. - Common Era (same as A.D.).

Ceruvim - the Cherubim in the Sanctuary.

Chag Habikkurim (al. Habikurim) - Literally: Festival of the First Fruits; another name for Shavuot.

Chag Haggeulah - festival of redemption.

Chag Sameach - Literally: a joyous holiday; greeting used on the festivals.

Chai - Literally: life. When Jews drink, they wish each other Lechayim (to life).

Chalitzah - This Biblical ceremony, to absolve a man of marrying his childless brother's widow, means "removal." The widow removes his shoe and publicly spits upon the recalcitrant.

Challah (al. Chalah) pl. chalot - Egg bread eaten on Shabbat and festivals; the challah used on Rosh haShanah is round, often containing raisins, symbolizing a sweet year, distinguishing it from the Shabbat challah that is braided...the kohen's share in the dough...White braided Sabbath bread; name of the dough tithed from bread baking.

Chametz (al. Chamets) - Food prepared with leaven, by extension referring to all foods and utensils forbidden on Passover...Leavened bread and anything made with wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, which has not been supervised to ensure that it has not leavened; refers to prohibited foods during Pesach.

Chanukat Habayit - Literally: dedication of the home; the ceremony affixing the mezuzah.

Chanukiah - Eight-branched candelabrum, with a place for a ninth candle (shamash) that light the others, especially designed for Hanukah.

Charoset - A mixture of fruits, nuts, and wine; one of the symbolic Passover foods. Its color and consistency are reminders of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves.

Chasidim - Ultra-Orthodox followers of the eighteenth-century leader, Rabbi Israel, the Ba'al Shem Tov.

Chatan - Bridegroom.

Chatan Bereshit - Literally: bridegroom of Genesis; the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

Chatan Torah - Literally: bridegroom of the torah; the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the final section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

Chatat (al. Hataat) - Sin offering in Temple...A sin offering made by one who has sinned against G-d.

Chavurah (al. Chaburah, Havra'ah) pl. Chavurot - a group of "subscribers" convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach Sacrifice and eating of its meat...Informal group, which meets together for Jewish study and celebration.

Chazan (al. Hazzan) - the cantor, the leader in prayer. A community official in a synagogue during the Second Temple period as well as today, usually called the Cantor in modern congregations.

Chazan Hakkeneset (al. Hazzan) - synagogue employee. A community official in a synagogue during the Second Temple period as well as today, usually called the Cantor in modern congregations.

Chazarat Hashatz - repetition of the amidah prayer by the cantor aloud after it was recited by the congregants.

Cheder - Old-fashioned term for Hebrew school....Chamber.

Cheshvan (Bul) - Second month of Jewish year.

Chet - Literally: missing the mark; one of the Hebrew terms translated as sin. Chevrah Kadisha - Group of people entrusted with the mitzvah of preparing a body for burial.

Chokmah - #2451. chokmah, khok-maw'; from H2449; wisdom (in a good sense):--skillful, wisdom, wisely, wit.

Chol - non-sacred.

Chol Hamoed - Ordinary part of the festival--days in the middle of Pesach or Sukkot when work is allowed...weekdays of the Festival.

Chukat - a portion in the Book of Numbers

Chukim: A Hebrew word meaning decrees..

Chumash pl. Chumashim - one of the Five Books of the Torah.

Chuppah (al. Chupah, Huppah) - Canopy under which pair stand at wedding ceremony, symbol of home to be established...Canopy which represents the honeymoon chamber.

Commonwealth: A group of people united by a common interest such as a state or nation. In ancient times Israel was known as a commonwealth because the people were united under an everlasting covenant of faith in Yahweh

Confirmation - Ceremony marking the completion of the religious school course of study, often held on Shavuot.

Consecration - Ceremony marking the beginning of a child's formal Jewish education, often held on Simchat Torah.

Corban (or Korban): The Hebrew word for a sacrificial offering, taken from the word karav and the idea of "drawing near." This was a popular word in the first century when many were abusing the gifts of God by using the phrase "It is corban," referring to money which was not a gift to the Temple (Mark 7:11).

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Da'ath - #1847. da'ath, dah'-ath; from H3045; knowledge:--cunning, [ig-] norantly, know(-ledge), [un-] awares (wittingly).

Darash - #1875. darash, daw-rash'; a prim. root; prop. to tread or frequent; usually to follow (for pursuit or search); by impl. to seek or ask; spec. to worship:--ask, X at all, care for, X diligently, inquire, make inquisition, [necro-] mancer, question, require, search, seek [for, out], X surely.

Dat: The Aramiaic word for law.

Daven - The Yiddish word meaning "pray."

Davar: The Hebrew word for the Word of God.

Dayenu - Literally: It would have been enough for us; name of a popular seder song.

Defilement - ritual impurity.

Demai: The Hebrew word describing produce on which tithes were not paid.

Desposynoi: A Greek term meaning heirs, used during the first century to refer to the family members and relatives of Jesus.

Devar Torah - Literally: a word of Torah; follows the Torah reading in a worship service, taking the form of a sermon, talk, explication, story, discussion, or program.

Diaspora - Jewish communities outside of Israel. The Greek word meaning dispersion, which has been applied since classical times to the Jewish settlements outside Palestine.

Didache: A Church manual of the second century A.D. known as The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles.

Dibre HaYamin - the events of the days.

Din pl. Dinim - Halachah law.

Duchan - the stand in front of the ark in the synagogue from which the kohanim bless the congregation.

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Ebionites: A Judeo-Christian movement intertwined with the early Church which held many questionable beliefs, including the requirement that all Christians adhere to Jewish Law. This group is known as Judaizers.

Ecclesia: A statue of image of a triumphant Church, used during the Middle Ages by church leaders to contrast Christianity with the broken image of Judaism.

Edot: A Hebrew word meaning witnesses, used for such items as the mezuzah and the tefillin.

Eglah Arufah - "the heifer-of-the-broken-neck" prescribed in case of an unsolved murder.

Ein Kelohenu - "There is no simile of our L-rd..." a passage recited after the morning prayer.

El Erech Apaim - a prayer mentioning the thirteen Divine Attributes.

El Malei Rachamim - Literally: G-d, full of compassion; memorial prayer.

Elohim - G-d.

Elokai Netzor - a passage of personal requests recited upon the conclusions of the silent prayer.

Elul - Twelfth month of Jewish year....prior to R-H.

Emor - a portion in the Book of Leviticus.

Emunah - faith.

Episkopos - #1985. episkopos, ep-is'-kop-os; from G1909 and G4649 (in the sense of G1983); a superintendent, i.e. Chr. officer in gen. charge of a (or the) church (lit. or fig.):--bishop, overseer.

Episunagoge - #1997. episunagoge, ep-ee-soon-ag-o-gay'; from G1996; a complete collection; spec. a Chr. meeting (for worship):--assembling (gathering) together.

Ereb - #6153. 'ereb, eh'-reb; from H6150; dusk:-- + day, even (-ing, tide), night. (al. Erev) the day before, the eve of.

Erusin - In ancient times, the formal engagement ceremony before marriage.

Eruv - an act of legal "mixing", the means of "mixing".

Eruv Chatzerot - an act of legal "mixing" to enable transferring from one "private domain" to another on Sabbath.

Eruv Tavshilin - an act of "mixing" the cooked food prepared for a festival and the Sabbath next to it in order to enable cooking and baking on the festival for the Sabbath.

Esoteric: Views or teaching only experienced by a select group of initiated individuals. Something not made public.

Etrog - Citron fruit; with the lulav, it is the symbol of Sukkot...citron fruit taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Eusebes - #2152. eusebes, yoo-seb-ace'; from G2095 and G4576; well-reverent, i.e. pious:--devout, godly.

Even Shetiyah - the Foundation Stone in the Sanctuary.

Exegete: One who is skilled in explaining the meaning of words and studies such as the Bible.

Ezrat Nashim - the outer Courtyard in the Sanctuary. Azarah pl. Azarot - the Temple Courtyard.

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Fleishig - Foods derived from meat or meat products.

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Gabai pl. Gaba'im - the leader of the Synagogue.

Gabbay Tzedakah: A warden or treasurer in an ancient synagogue whose job was to collect taxes or dues.

Gan Eden - The Garden of Eden...paradise.

Gaon pl. Ge'onim - (Excellency) Reverential title of heads of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita, Babylonia. Rabbi Elijah of Wilna was accorded that title in the eighteenth century...the head of a Torah Center in Babylonia in the post-Talmudic era.

Gehinnom (al. Gehinom) - Literally: Valley of Hinnom; a temporary place of punishment in the afterlife...Hell.

Gelt - Yiddish term for money; traditionally given as a Hanukah gift and used for the dreidel game.

Gemar Chatimah Tovah - Literally: May the final sealing be good; traditional greeting from the end of Rosh haShanah through Yom Kippur.

Gemara - Collection of legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis of the third through the fifth centuries, edited about 500 CE; together with the Mishnah forms the Talmud.

Gematria - Finding meanings in the numerical value of Hebrew letters and words.

Ger - #1616. ger, gare; from H1481; prop. a guest; by impl. a foreigner:--alien, sojourner, stranger...Gioret pl. gerim - The masculine and feminine forms of the Hebrew term for convert.

Ger Sheker - Proselyte who declares full conversion for ulterior motives.

Ger Toshav - Proselyte who accepts monotheism and the Noahide laws, and who receives courtesies and privileges.

Ger Tzedek - Full convert of true conviction, in all respects to be considered a Jew.

Gerut - The process of conversion.

Get - Religious divorce; the word is used to refer to a Jewish bill of divorcement.

Gevurot Geshamim - "the Power of Rain", a Praise to G-d for the revelation of His powers in Nature, added to the silent prayer.

Gezerah - Laws or traditions added by the Pharisees as fences around the existing Law in an attempt to prevent it from being broken.

God (names) - Adonai, Elohim, El Shaddai, YHVH, Hakadosh Baruch Hu, Ribono shel Olam, Harachaman, Avinu Shebashamayim.

God-Fearers: A name used to describe non-Jews in ancient times who believed in God, attended synagogue, prayer, feared God, and gave financially, but did not take the final step of circumcision (Acts 10:22).

Gnostic: An adherent or advocate of Gnosticism, an ancient Greek and Oriental philosophy based on secret superior knowledge modified by an attempted synthesis with Christian doctrine.

Go'el - Redeemer.

Go'el Israel - "The Redeemer of Israel", one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer.

Goyim - foreigner.

Grogger (al. Greegers, Graggers) - Noisemaker used to drown out Haman's name during the reading of the Megillah on Purim.

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Ha Melech - The king.

Ha'azinu, the song of. A portion of Deuteronomy.

Haben - The son.

Hadas - a myrtle branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Haftorah (al. Haftarah) pl. Haftarot - Selection from the Prophets read or chanted after the weekly Torah portion during the synagogue service on Sabbath and holidays.

Hag haMatzah - The Festival of Unleavened Bread.

Hagadol - The great.

Hagah - #1897. hagah, haw-gaw'; a prim. root [comp. H1901]; to murmur (in pleasure or anger); by impl. to ponder:--imagine, meditate, mourn, mutter, roar, X sore, speak, study, talk, utter.

Hagbalah - Days of Abstinence.

Haggadah (al. Hagadah, Agada, Agadah, Aggadah) pl. Haggadot - A general Hebrew term for utterance, applied specifically to the nonlegal portion of rabbinic literature. It is also the title of the text recited at the festive meal (seder) on the first two nights of Passover...Literally: telling; book in which the Passover story is retold and the seder ritual is outlined...the tale of the Exodus from Egypt as read at the Seder Night.

Hagigah (al. Chagigah) - a sacrifice offered on the eve of Pilgrim Festivals.

Hagomel - A blessing of thanksgiving for deliverance from perils.

Hakafah pl. Hakafot - The carrying of the Torah scrolls in a procession around the sanctuary...the circling of the Altar in the Sanctuary or the Bimah in the Synagogue.

Hakhamim: Men of wisdom referring to the Pharisees or Haberim.

Hak-heyl - assemble-ceremony of reading parts of Torah every seventh Sukkot.

Halakhah (al. Halachah, Chalakah) - The way one goes; the word for law, or for the purely legal and regulatory portions of the Talmud, and of all Jewish lore...Jewish law.

Halakhah Lemoshe Misinai (al. Halachah, Chalakah) - a Law given to Moses on Sinai and not written explicitly in the Torah.


Hallel (al. Halel) - Special psalms of praise, recited or sung on the festivals....Psalms 113 - 118.

Halluq: A simple tunic worn both at home and work as the primary dress by men of the first century.

Hamantashen - Filled three-cornered pastries supposed to represent Haman's hat, traditionally eaten on Purim.

Hamavdil - the blessing of Havdalah.

Hammurabi Law Code: The code of laws promulgated by Hammurabi, the king of Babylonia during the first dynasty, around 2000 B.D. Although there are many similarities between Hammurabi;s Law Code and the Mosaic Law Code, Hammurabi’s was based on his will whereas Moses’ was God’s will. Some scholars identify Hammurabi with Amraphel of Genesis 14.

Hanukah (al. Chanukah)- Literally: dedication; name of the winter holiday commemorating the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 165 BCE.

Haptomai - #680. haptomai, hap'-tom-ahee; reflex. of G681; prop. to attach oneself to, i.e. to touch (in many implied relations):--touch.

Harpazo- #726. harpazo, har-pad'-zo; from a der. of G138; to seize (in arious applications):--catch (away, up), pluck, pull, take (by force).

HaSatan - The Adversary (same as Satan).

Hasideans (or Hasidim): A pious group of Israelites preceding the Pharisees. In the 18th century A.D., this title began to be used to designate a sect of European Jews. There is no direct connection to the earlier group.

Hasmonean period: The period of the Maccabean dynasty, 165 to 37 B.C.

Hatafat Dam Berit - Taking a single drop of blood from the penis as a sign f the covenant, necessary in the conversion of an adult male already circumcised.

Hatarat Nedarim - the repeal of vows.

Hatikva - The hope.

Hatov Vehametive- the fourth blessing of Birkat haMazon -- "He Who is good and bestows goodness..".

Havdalah - Literally: separation; ceremony that marks the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the week...the blessing over wine to mark the difference between the Sabbath and the weekdays.

Haver: A Hebrew word meaning companion or comrade, used in ancient times to denote a scholar or pious man among those faithful to the Law. This concept was taken from the text of Psalm 119:63, "I am a companion of them who fear the Lord."

Haverim: Those who distinguish themselves as faithful by such things as remaining ritually pure and full tithing.

Havurot: The closed communities of like-minded men who encouraged one another in the exact fulfillment of the demands made by the pious Israelites, such as the Pharisees

Hayom Harat Olam - verses recited during the Rosh haShanah mussaf prayer.

Hechag - Literally: the holiday; one of the names for Sukkot.

Hechal - Hall of the Sanctuary.

Heretic - One whose beliefs do not accord with those of the established religion to which he claims adherence.

Hessed: A Hebrew word meaning grace, mercy, or lovingkindness

Hester Panim - the withdrawal of Divine Favor.

Heter - permission, permit.

Heter Iska - "transaction permit" allowing a money lender to take interest by making him a partner of the borrower sharing his profits.

High Holy Days - A ten day period from Rosh haShanah to Yom Kippur.

Hillel - The most prominent Jewish teacher of the first century (30 BCE - 10 CE).

Hillelites: Those who held to the more liberal view of the Law as taught in the Second Temple school of Hillel.

Hilula - a celebration of memorial.

Holy of Holies - most Holy inner part of the Sanctuary.

Homiletic - The art of preaching or public persuasion.

Hoshanah - Chant of "Save us, L-rd." said while carrying Torah in procession.

Hoshana Rabbah (al. Hoshanah Raba) - the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

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Idumean: An individual from Edom, an area southeast of Palestine also known as Idumaea.

Iessaioi: An early name for the believers of Jesus before they were called Christians, thought to be taken from the Greek word for "Jesus."

Ishtar - Fertility Goddess.

Isru Chag - the day following a festival.

Itro - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Iyar (Zif] - Eighth month of Jewish year.

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Jubilee - Every fiftieth year, land lies fallow and land ownership is totally redistributed into equal family shares.

Judaizers: A term applied to those who required non-Jews to keep the Jewish Law in order to become a Christian believer.

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Kabbalat Ol Mitzvot - Literally: the acceptance of the yoke of the commandments; a convert's agreement to lead a Jewish life.

Kabbalat Shabbat - Psalms, readings and songs welcoming the Sabbath; the introductory portion of the Sabbath eve service.

Kabod (al. kabowd) - #3519. kabowd, kaw-bode'; rarely kabod, kaw-bode'; from H3513; prop. weight; but only fig. in a good sense, splendor or copiousness:--glorious (-ly), glory, honour (-able). (al. Kavod)

Kaddish (al. Kadish)- Prayer praising G-d. This prayer is chanted at several points in a service. In addition, it is recited at least once at each service in memory of those who have died...Prayer of sanctification of G-d's name.

Kalat Bereshit - Literally: bride of Genesis; the woman called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah.

Kallah (al. Kalah) pl. Kallot - Bride...Conclave or retreat.

Kal-ve-chomer: A popular Jewish teaching method of the first century otherwise known as light and heavy. This method was used extensively by Jesus.

Kaparah pl. Kaparot (al. pl. Kapparot) - expiation...Ceremony of transferring sinfulness to a scapegoat just before Yom Kippur.

Kaporet - the covering over the Holy Ark in the Sanctuary.

K'arah - Passover dish.

Karaites: A Jewish sect who rejected the Oral Law, originally know as Ananites.

Karath - #3772. karath, kaw-rath'; a prim. root; to cut (off, down or asunder); by impl. to destroy or consume; spec. to covenant (i.e. make an alliance or bargain, orig. by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces):--be chewed, be con- [feder-] ate, covenant, cut (down, off), destroy, fail, feller, be freed, hew (down), make a league ([covenant]), X lose, perish, X utterly, X want ... (al. Karet) - "Being cut off" from the people; Biblical punishment which might become capital or consist of early natural death.

Karpas - A green herb like parsley or a green vegetable such as celery or watercress, symbolizing spring; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate.

Kashrut - Jewish dietary laws.

Katatome - #2699. katatome, kat-at-om-ay'; from a comp. of G2596 and temno (to cut); a cutting down (off), i.e. mutilation (ironically):--concision. Comp. G609.

Kavanah - Literally: intentionality; referring to the spiritual attitude with which we approach worship.

Kedushah - (Holiness) When the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah (standing prayer), the congregation rises for this antiphonal chant of a doxology from Bible verses proclaiming oneness and sanctity of the L-rd...prayer of sanctification of G-d's Name added to the third benediction of the amidah prayer.

Kedushat Hayom - the benediction concerning the "sanctity of the day" included in the amidah prayers on Sabbaths and Festivals.

Kehunah, Kehunah Gedolah - Priesthood in the Sanctuary, High Priesthood.

Ken Ayin Hara (Yiddish, Kinna Hurra) - Literally: May there be no evil eye. Keriah - Tearing of a garment or a symbolic black ribbon as an expression of grief in conjunction with a death.

Keneset Gedolah: The Great Synagogue or Great Assembly founded during Ezra’s time.

Ketiva Vachatima Tovah - wishes of "good inscription" on Rosh haShanah.

Ketoret - incense offered in the Sanctuary.

Ketubah (al. Kethubhoth) pl. Ketubot - (Writing) Traditional marriage contract, detailing duties of wife and husband, and providing money penalties for divorcement of wife...A second marriage contract.

Ketuvim - Literally: the Writings; third section of the Bible.

Ketz - End of Days.

Kevah - Literally: fixed; referring to the fixed order of Jewish liturgy.

Kevod Hamet (al. Kebod) - Honor due to the dead.

Ki Tetze - a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy.

Ki Tisa - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Kiddush (al. Kidush) - Blessing recited or chanted over wine on Shabbat or festivals emphasizing their holiness....pour out first cup of wine / blessing of extension, a light meal after the wine.

Kiddush Hachodesh (al. Kidush) - the sanctification of the New Moon.

Kiddush Levanah (al. Kidush) - the blessing of sanctification over the monthly renewal of the moon.

Kiddushin (al. Qiddushin, Kedushin) - Literally: holiness; refers both to the wedding ceremony and to the state of matrimony.

Kinah pl. Kinot - (Lamentation) Elegy in poetic (piyyut) structure recited on Jewish days of mourning.

Kipah - The Hebrew term for skullcap; the Yiddish term is yarmulke.

Kislev - Third month of Jewish year.

Kittel (al. Kitel) - White garment that is part of traditional Jewish burial clothes; worn by some worshipers on Yom Kippur as a reminder of mortality and a symbol of purity, and by some officiants at Rosh haShanah services and at the Passover Seder. Also worn by some grooms at their wedding.

Klaf - Hand-written scroll placed in a mezuzah, containing Deuteronomy 6:4-9; ll:13-21.

Kodashim Kalim - sacrifices of minor sanctity.

Kodesh - Literally: holy.

Kodesh hakodhashim - room behind Holy Place. also hakodesh - the Holy Place.

Kohelet - the Scroll of Ecclesiastes.

Kohen (al. Cohen) pl. Kohanim (al. pl. Cohanim) - Descendant of the ancient priestly class, the progeny of Aaron...a priest.

Kohen haGadol (al. Cohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol] - The High Priest.

Kol Nidrei (al. Nidrey) - Literally: al vows; prayer that begins the Yom Kippur eve service; the entire service is often called the Kol Nidrei service...a prayer and announcement of repeal of vows recited upon the advent of the Day of Atonement.

Korech - matzah and bitter herb sandwich.

Kosher - Ritually fit for use...permitted.

Kri - the traditional pronunciation of words in the Torah.

K'tiv - the traditional spelling of words in the Torah.

Kvatter / Kvatterin - Godfather / Godmother; those who carry the baby into the Berit ceremony.

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Ladino - Judeo-Spanish; the everyday language of Sephardic Jews.

Lag baOmer - 33rd day of 50 days of Omer.

Lamnatze'ach Ya'ancha Hashem - Psalm 20, recited on weekdays to mark sorrow and supplication.

Latreia - #2999. latreia, lat-ri'-ah; from G3000; ministration of God, i.e. worship:--(divine) service.

Lech Lecha - the third portion in the Book of Genesis.

Lechem Mishneh - two loaves required for the blessing on Sabbath and Festival meals.

Lehitpalel - Literally: to judge oneself; the Hebrew word meaning "to pray."

Leshanah Tovah Tikatevu - Literally: May you be inscribed [in the Book of Life] for a good year; Rosh haShanah greeting, sometimes shortened to Shanah Tovah.

Levi - a Servant in the Sanctuary, a Sage of the Talmud.

Leviathan - Sea monster mentioned in Job, of which the pious will eat at the resurrection.

Levirate - the institution of the brother-in-law (marrying his brothers widow).

Lulav pl. Lulavim - Palm branch, with myrtle and willow sprigs attached; with the etrog, it is the symbol of Sukkot...a palm branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

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Maamad - "Station"--groups of lay people who assisted the Levites at the daily sacrifices one week a year.

Ma'aminim - the Believers.

Maariv - Evening prayer service....evening prayers after sunset.

Ma'aser pl. Ma'asrot - tithes given to the Kohen, the Levite or the poor.

Machah - #4229. machah, maw-khaw'; a prim. root; prop. to stroke or rub; by impl. to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to:--abolish, blot out, destroy, full of marrow, put out, reach unto, X utterly, wipe (away, out).

Machzor - (Repetition) High Holy Day prayer book, In some Orthodox synagogues, a special prayer book- -also known as a machzor--is used on the Pilgrimage Festivals.

Maftir - Last part of Torah reading on a given Shabbos or festival...the man who is "called up" to the reading of the concluding passage.

Magen Avot - a short summary of the Sabbath amidah prayer recited on Sabbath Eve after the silent prayer.

Maggid - Preacher; generally itinerant, and popular because of his clever parables....narration. A migratory Jewish evangelist in ancient times who spoke to various congregations.

Mah Nishtanah - four questions.

Malkot - the penalty of lashing.

Malkut Shamayim - The Kingdom of Heaven.

Maot Chitim (al. maoz chittin) - Literally: wheat money; money collected prior to Passover to assist the needy to celebrate the holiday and to buy special Passover foods.

Maoz Tsur - Best-known Hanukah song. An English version of the song is entitled "Rock of Ages."

Maror - A bitter herb such as horseradish, symbolizing the bitter plight of the enslaved Israelites; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate.

Marranoes - forcibly converted Jews in Spain.

Mashiach - Anointed one (same as Messiah or Christ).

Masoretes: A group of scholars whose purpose was to safeguard the integrity of the biblical text and facilitate its study. Over many centuries they established a variety of rules with which they protected the correct text.

Masoretic Text - The accepted Hebrew text of scriptures.

Mattan Torah (al. Matan) - The giving of the law or instruction.

Mattanot Le-Evyonim - Giving to the poor.

Matzah pl. Matzot - Unleavened bread...The unleavened bread eaten in recollection of the hurried departure from Egypt; the eating of matzah is obligatory only at the seder.

Mayim Hayim - Living water.

Mazal Tov - Literally: good luck; congratulations. Mechilta - Halakhic midrash to Exodus.

Medieval - Relating to or characteristic of the Middle Ages.

Megillah (al. Megilah) pl. Megillot - Literally: scroll; there are five megillot in the Bible. The one we read on Sukkot is Ecclesiastes, on Purim is Esther, on Pesach is Song of Songs, on Shavuot is Ruth and on Tishah Be'av is Lamentations.

Melech - king.

Memra: An Aramaic word used by ancient Jewish sages for the Word of God.

Meni - Moon Goddess.

Menorah pl. Menorot - Seven- or eight-branched candelabrum; people commonly refer to an eight- branched Chanukiah as a menorah...the Lamp of the Sanctuary.

Menuddeh: The Hebrew word for defiled, used to designate those found guilty by the Sanhedrin.

Menuhan - place of rest.

Mesorah - the traditional essential requirements in the writing of a Torah Scroll.

Messianist: An early name for an individual following Jesus as the Messiah.

Meturganim: An ancient interpreter who was skilled in languages and stood by the one reading the Law or teaching in the Bet Midrash to interpret.

Mevinim: Expounders of the Law who were active after the time of Ezra.

Mezuzah pl. Mezuzot - (Doorpost) Ritual object consisting of a casing and a klaf that is put on the doorpost(s) of the house. The Hebrew word for doorpost, used for the small parchment on which are inscribed the first two paragraphs of the Shema prayer of Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21. A mezuzah is affixed on the doorposts of virtually all Jewish homes in accordance with the concept of Deuteronomy 6:9.

Midat Hadin - the Divine Attribute of Justice.

Middot: Various collections of rules passed down from the Pharisees to the Talmudic times.

Midrash pl. Midrashim - A collection of works compiled between the third and twelfth centuries that seeks out underlying truths and meanings of the Bible; the result of the process of delving into the ramifications of a biblical verse and of the ancient rabbis' reading between the lines of Scripture.

Mikdash Me'at - Literally: a small sanctuary; refers to the home.

Mikrah (al. Miqra) - #4744. miqra', mik-raw'; from H7121; something called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal:--assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

Mikveh: A Hebrew word meaning the gathering of waters, but used to refer to the ritual immersion of persons or utensils for purity.

Minchah pl. Menachot - from an unused root mean. to apportion, i.e. bestow; a donation; euphem. tribute; spec. a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary):--gift, oblation, (meat) offering, present, sacrifice...afternoon prayer; name of Temple sacrifice...evening prayers during the day...a gift offering in the offering made of flour and oil.

Minim - Sectaries; early Judeo-Christians. The plural form of the Hebrew word min, meaning heretic. This was an early epithet attached to Judeio-Christians.

Minyan - Quorum of ten adult Jews necessary for public prayer. Miqvah - #4724. miqvah, mik-vaw'; fem. of H4723; a collection, i.e. (of water) a reservoir:--ditch. (al. Mikvah) - Ritual bath.

Miqveh - #4723. miqveh, mik-veh'; or miqveh (H1 Kings 10 : 28), mik-vay'; or ` miqve' (H2 Chron. 1 : 16), mik-vay'; from H6960; something waited for, i.e. confidence (obj. or subj.); also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove:--abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty [of water], pool.

Mishkan - #4908. mishkan, mish-kawn'; from H7931; a residence (includ. a shepherd's hut, the lair of animals, fig. the grave; also the Temple); spec. the Tabernacle (prop. its wooden walls):--dwelleth, dwelling (place), habitation, tabernacle, tent....the Sanctuary Tent.

Mishlo'ach Manot - the sending of "portions" to friends on Purim.

Mishnah - Code of Jewish law edited by Rabbi Judah HaNasi about 200 CE; together with the Gemara forms the Talmud.  A technical textbook giving the essence of the Oral Law, which according to Jewish tradition, was handed down to Moses along with the written Law at Sinai. The Oral Law, or Mishnah, describes how to do what is commanded in the Law.

Mishpachah - #4940. mishpachah, mish-paw-khaw'; from H8192 [comp. H8198]; a family, i.e. circle of relatives; fig. a class (of persons), a species (of animals) or sort (of things); by extens. a tribe or people:--family, kind (-red).

Mishpatim - a portion in the Book of Exodus. A Hebrew word meaning judgments, used to refer to moral or ethical laws.

Mitzvah pl. Mitzvot - Literally: Commandment; a religious precept or obligation; mitzvah refers to one of the 613 commandments in the Torah....a good deed.

Mitzvat Aseh - a commandment-to-do, a positive command.

Mitzvat Lo Ta'aseh - a commandment-not-to-do, a prohibition.

Mizmor Letodah - Psalm 101 recited daily to commemorate the Thanksgiving Offering in the Sanctuary.

Mo'ed (al. mow’ed) - #4150. mow'ed, mo-ade'; or mo'ed mo-ade'; or (fem.) mow'adah (H2 Chron. 8 : 13), mo-aw-daw'; from H3259; prop. an appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; spec. a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand):--appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed).

Mohel pl. Mohalim - Authorized functionary performing ritual circumcision.

Molad, Molad Halevanah pl. Moladot - the appearance of the new Moon.

Moreh: The Hebrew word for teacher

Moreh Tzaddikim - teacher of righteousness.

Motza'ei Shabbat (al. Shabat) - the night following the Sabbath.

Motzi (al. Hammotzee, Hamotzi) - Literally: [G-d] who brings forth [bread]; blessing over bread; standard blessing before meals at which bread is of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

Muktzeh - an object forbidden to carry on the Sabbath and Festival because of its not being fit or meant for use on that day.

Mussaf - (al. Musaf) "Added" prayer service for Sabbaths and festivals, immediately following morning prayer...the additional whole offering in the Sanctuary prescribed by the Torah for Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons; Today: an additional Amidah prayer on said days as against the additional sacrifices.

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Na'anu'im - the wavings of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Nacham - #5162. nacham, naw-kham'; a prim. root; prop. to sigh, i.e. breathe strongly; by impl. to be sorry, i.e. (in a favorable sense) to pity, console, or (reflex.) rue; or (unfavorably) to avenge (oneself):--comfort (self), ease [one's self], repent (-er, -ing, self).

Nachash Hakadomony - the Predatory Snake.

Nachem - a prayer for consolation.

Naga - #5060. naga', naw-gah'; a prim. root; prop. to touch, i.e. lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphem., to lie with a woman); by impl. to reach (fig. to arrive, acquire); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.):--beat, (X be able to) bring (down), cast, come (nigh), draw near (nigh), get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch.

Nasi (al. nasiy) - #5387. nasiy', naw-see'; or nasi', naw-see'; from H5375; prop. an exalted one, i.e. a king or sheik; also a rising mist:--captain, chief, cloud, governor, prince, ruler, Nesi'im - head of the people, a head of a Tribe, a Prince.The president or administrator of a synagogue.

Naso - a portion in the Book of Numbers.

Natsal - #5337. natsal, naw-tsal'; a prim. root; to snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense:-- X at all, defend, deliver (self), escape, X without fail, part, pluck, preserve, recover, rescue, rid, save, spoil, strip, X surely, take (out).

Nazah - #5137. nazah, naw-zaw'; a prim. root; to spirt, i.e. besprinkle (espec. in expiation):--sprinkle.

Nazoraeans - Judaizing Christian sect (not to be confused with Nazarenes, a general term for Christians).

Nazoraioi: The Greek root of the word Nazarenes, used as an early name for believers in Jesus of Nazareth.

Ne’eman: A word meaning trustworthy, used as the first of the stages or degrees in becoming a Pharisee.

Neertzah (al. Nirtzah) - acceptance, closing prayer...the last phase of the Seder ceremony.

Neilah - Literally: closing; concluding service of Yom Kippur...closing of the gate.

Nesech - the libation of wine over the altar in the Sanctuary accompanying the sacrifices.

Neta Revai - the fruit of the fourth year after planting.

Netilat Lulav -the commandment of the four species in the Feast of Tabernacles.

Nevi'im - Literally: the Prophets; second section of the Bible...the latter prophets.

Niddah - Ritually unclean woman.

Niddui: A process whereby an individual is demoted to the status of Am-Ha-Eretz and shunned by the Pharisees.

Nisan (Aviv) - First (springtime) month of year, during which Passover falls. The first month of the religious year and the seventh of the civil year, according to the Jewish calendar. In early biblical texts, its name is Aviv. Later, the "N" was added from the Assyrian culture. This month corresponds to April.

Nissuin (al. Nisuin) - In ancient times, the formal wedding ceremony.

Nisuch Hamayim - the libation of water in the Sanctuary during the Feast of Tabernacles.

Noahide - One who follows the covenant made with Noah.

Noachide Laws: According to tradition, a series of injunctions originally given to Noah and therefore binding on both Hews and non-Jews. According to ancient writings, there were seven such laws or categories of rules taken from the early chapters of Henesis. These later became recognized as the basic laws that a non-Jewish believer must observe to show that he had withdrawn from idolatry (Acts 15:28-29).

Nomos: The Greek word for law.

Nusach - liturgical melodies at services.

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Odes of Solomon: A collection of forty-two Christian odes or poems which are heavily influenced by Jewish thought and filled with apocalypses similar to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Many scholars believe they were used as a hymnal in the first-century Church.

Ohel Mo'ed - the "Tent of Meeting"

Oketz - the stalk of the etrog.

Olah - Burnt offering in Temple.

Olam Haba - (al. Habba) Literally: the world to Come; refers to the life of the soul after death.

Olam Hazeh - the present world of toil.

Omer - Sheaf or bushel of grain.

Onan (al. Onen) - Mourner (between death and burial)....a mourning relative.

Oneg Shabbat - Literally: joy of the Sabbath; reception after Friday night services, which includes refreshments, socializing, and, sometimes, Israeli dancing or a discussion.

Onkelos - A targum on the Pentateuch.

Orlah - fruit picked during the first three years after planting which is forbidden by the torah.

Oseif - Gathering of the Nobles.

Ossuary: A bone box used in ancient times to keep the bones after the flesh had decomposed. The ossuary was also known as a secondary burial.

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Parah Adumah - Red heifer--special sacrificial animal.

Parashah pl. Parashot - The weekly Torah portion; also called Sidrah or Sedrah or Sidra.

Pardes: An acronym using the first letter of each of the four basic types of Jewish exegesis used during the first century. These methods were peshat (simple), remez (hinting), derash (complex), and sod (secret) and were utilized by Jesus and other rabbis. The meaning of the word pardes is orchard (from which one gleans).

Pareve - Foods containing neither meat nor milk.

Parochet - the curtain over the Ark in the Synagogue; the curtain separating the Holy of Holies from the Hechal.

Patrician: Pertaining to the aristocracy, nobility, or upper classes. An honorary title later bestowed upon the Roman emperors.

Payes - Sidecurls worn by Ultra-Orthodox men and boys.

Payot - corners; therefore, earlocks of hair.

Pentateuch - the first five Books of the Bible, the Five Books of Moses.

Perushim - the upholders of the Oral Torah at the time of the Second Sanctuary.

Pesach pl. Pesachim - Passover.

Pesach Katan - the second offering of the Paschal Lamb on the 14th of Iyar.

Pesach Sheni - the 14th of Iyar, the offering of the Pesach Sacrifice by those who were not able to do so on the 14th of Nisan. Peshat - little meaning, literal.

Pesikta - Book of Haggadic discourses for festivals and special Sabbaths.

Pharisaioi: A Greek word meaning separatists, from which we get the English word Pharisees

Pharisees - Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that wanted to develop Judaism through prayer, study of Torah, and midrashic interpretations of Torah; forerunners of the rabbis.

Phobeo - #5399. phobeo, fob-eh'-o; from G5401; to frighten, i.e. (pass.) to be alarmed; by anal. to be in awe of, i.e. revere:--be (+ sore) afraid, fear (exceedingly), reverence.

Pidyon haben / habat - Literally: redemption of the (firstborn) son / daughter; home ceremony that takes place on the thirty-first day of a child's life.

Piku'ach Nefesh - the care for human life.

Pikudey - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Pinchas - a portion in the Book of Numbers

Pirkei Avot: One of the tractates of the Mishnah known as The Talmudic Book of Proverbs because it is composed of maxims and epigrams of the sages and contaings no legal material..

Pirkey Avot - "the Ethics of the Fathers", a tractate in the Mishnah.

Pitma - the wart of the etrog.

Piyyut (al. piyut) pl. piyyutim (al. pl. piyutim) - Poetic prayer...liturgical poem.

Plebeian: Pertaining to the common people of ancient times.

Pneuma - #4151. pneuma, pnyoo'-mah; from G4154; a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; by anal. or fig. a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by impl.) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy Spirit:--ghost, life, spirit (-ual, -ually), mind. Comp. G5590.

Proselyte - Convert to Judaism. 

Proselytes: A person who has converted to Judaism, from the Hebrew word ger meaning a stranger.

Proto-rabbi: A rabbi during the period prior to 70 A.D.

Proto-rabbinic Judaism: The religion of the Hews during the time before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D.

Psalms of Solomon: A pseudepigraphic book which condemns sin and looks forward to the advent of Messiah. It is believed that much of the liturgy for worship among the Pharisees was taken from this book.

Pseudepigraphic - written under another name.

Publicans: A group generally made up of wealthy men who paid for the privilege of collecting taxes in certain areas. The Publicans were often called tax collectors.

Purim - Literally: lots; festival that celebrates the survival of the Jewish people.

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Qahal - #6951. qahal, kaw-hawl'; from H6950; assemblage (usually concr.):--assembly, company, congregation, multitude.

Qehelathah - #6954. Qehelathah, keh-hay-law'-thaw, from H6950; convocation; Kehelathah, a place in the Desert:--Kehelathah.

Qoheleth - #6953. qoheleth, ko-heh'-leth; fem. of act. part. from H6950; a (female) assembler (i.e. lecturer); abstr. preaching (used as a "nom de plume", Koheleth):--preacher.

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Rabbi pl. Rabanim - religious authority.

Rachatzah - washing Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal.

Rahab (al. Rachav) - Proud, harlot, broad. The word "Rahab" means a wall or broad place. Theis is where we get the term "broad" for a woman...False messianic kingdom.

Ramah - Seat of Idolatry.

Rasha pl. Rashim - The wholly wicked...iniquitous.

Rav - a Sage of the Talmud.

Re'eh - a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy.

Refa'enu - "Heal us..", one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer.

Remez - alluding to.

Replacement Theology: A concept that emerged from the teachings of some non-Jewish leaders of the second-century Church who taught that the Church had replaced Israel as God’s chosen people.

Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal Rachatzah - washing Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

Rosh haShanah - Literally: head of the year; Jewish New Year.

Rosh Hodesh (al. Chodesh) - festival of the new moon.

Ruach HaKodesh - The Holy Spirit.

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Sadducean: A member of an ancient Jewish group called the Sadducees who adhered to the Mosaic Law but repudiated the Oral Law and the traditions of the Pharisees.

Sadducees - Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that focused on priestly functions and the sacrificial system.

Sandak - Person who holds the baby during the Berit Milah ceremony.

Sanhedrin - the High Court in Jerusalem.

Sar - #8269. sar, sar; from H8323; a head person (of any rank or class):--captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, lord, ([-task-]) master, prince (-ipal), ruler, steward.

Scribes - the Sages who interpreted the Torah and its Laws.

Sebomai - #4576. sebomai, seb'-om-ahee; mid. of an appar. prim. verb; to revere, i.e. adore:--devout, religious, worship.

Sectarian: Pertaining to or belonging to a particular sect, group, or party.

Seder - Literally: order; ritual for the home celebration of the first (and second) evening(s) of Pesach...the ceremony to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt on Passover Eve.

Seder Avodah (al. Abodah) - the "order of Service" that the Kohen Gadol performs in the Sanctuary on the day of Atonement.

Sefer Torah (al. Sifrei) pl. Sefarim - Torah scroll.

Sefirah - the "days of counting" between the Passover and Pentecost.

Segan hacohaneem: A servant who was the chief assistant to the high priest in his Temple duties.

Selichah: The Jewish prayer of forgiveness.

Selichot - Penitential prayers.

Selichot Service - A service of preparation for the High Holy Days, usually held at midnight on the Saturday preceding Rosh haShanah.

Semichah pl. Semuchim - ordination, Ordained Rabbis.

Sephardi pl. Sephardim - of Oriental Jewish communities.

Seraphim - fiery angels.

Seudah - Feast.

Seudah Mafseket (al. Hemafseket) - the "meal of cessation" before a fast.

Seudah shel Mitzvah - A festive meal that honors the observance of a mitzvah; a meal prescribed by the Torah or the Sages, same as Seudat Mitzvah.

Seudah Shelishit (al. Shlishit) - Literally: third meal; a light meal eaten late on Shabbat afternoon...the third meal eaten on the Sabbath.

Seudat Chavurah (al. Havra'ah, Chaburah) - Literally: meal of condolence; prepared by friends of the mourners and eaten in the house of mourning immediately following a funeral.

Sevivon - Hebrew word for a dreidel (four-sided top used in a Hanukah game).

Sfeka Deyoma - doubt as to the exact date of the day.

Sha'atnez - a cloth combining wool and linen.

Shabbat - The Sabbath (Sephardic pronunciation).

Shabbat Bereshit (al. Bereishit) - the first Sabbath after Simchat Torah on which the portion of Bereishit is read.

Shabbat Chazon - the Sabbath before the Ninth of Av.

Shabbat haGadol - Literally: the Great Sabbath; the Sabbath preceding Passover.

Shabbat Mevarchim - the Sabbath on which the forthcoming month is blessed.

Shabbat Nachamu - the Sabbath after the Ninth of Av.

Shabbat Shirah - "the Sabbath of Song", the Sabbath on which "the song of the sea" is read in the portion of Beshalach.

Shabbat Shuvah - Literally: Sabbath of Return; the Sabbath between Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur.

Shabbat Zachor - The Sabbath immediately preceding Purim.

Shabbaton pl. Shabbatonim - Seven High Sabbaths....sabbath program of study and celebration.

Shabbos - The Sabbath (Ashkenazic pronunciation).

Shachah - #7812. shachah, shaw-khaw'; a prim. root; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. in homage to royalty or God):--bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship.

Shacharit (al. Shararit) - Morning Prayer. From Hebrew for "dawn"...Morning prayer service.

Shaddai - G-d Almighty.

Shakan - #7931. shakan, shaw-kan'; a prim. root [appar. akin (by transm.) to H7901 through the idea of lodging; comp. H5531, H7925]; to reside or permanently stay (lit. or fig.):--abide, continue, (cause to, make to) dwell (-er), have habitation, inhabit, lay, place, (cause to) remain, rest, set (up).

Shaliach - agent sent as the one who sent the agent. A messenger sent out by ancient Jewish congregations to perform a task or make an announcement

Shaliach Tzibur - the precentor of the prayers in the Synagogue, the Cantor.

Shalom - The fullness of peace and harmony.

Shalom Zachor - first Friday following birth.

Shalosh Seudot - The three festive meals prescribed for the Sabbath.

Shammai (al. Schammai) - School of.

Shammaite Pharisee: One who held to the strict view of the Law as taught in the Second Temple school of Shammai.

Shammash (al. Shamash) - Literally: servant; term for the ninth candle used to light the other candles in the Chanukiah ... the beadle in the Synagogue.

Shavuot - Literally: weeks...The Day of Pentecost, receiving of the Torah, and the beginning of the wheat harvest. Also, it represents the betrothal between Israel and the L-rd.

Shebet - #7626. shebet, shay'-bet; from an unused root prob. mean. to branch off, a scion, i.e. (lit.) a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (fig.) a clan:-- X correction, dart, rod, sceptre, staff, tribe.

Shebuah (al. shabuwa) - #7620. shabuwa', shaw-boo'-ah; or shabua', shaw-boo'-ah; also (fem.) shebu'ah, sheb-oo-aw'; prop. pass. part. of H7650 as a denom. of H7651; lit. sevened, i.e. a week (spec. of years):--seven, week.

Shechita - the slaughtering of animals for meat as prescribed by the Torah.

She'elat Geshamim - the petition for rain.

She'elot u-Teshuvot - questions and responses to queries on matters of Jewish law by rabbis and sages.

Shehecheyanu - Literally: [G-d] who has kept us alive; this is the blessing for beginnings and other happy occasions in people's lives, such as birth and marriage. It is also said at candlelighting, Kiddush and certain other specific times during festival observances...a blessing over mitzvot which are performed once a year or over new fruit in its season.

Shekhinah (al. Shechinah) - G-d's Presence in the world. - Aram. and late Heb., a word not in Scripture, but used by later Jews and by Christians to express the visible divine Presence, especially when resting between the cherubim over the mercy seat. A Hebrew word meaning indwelling, used to represent the Divine Presence of Yahweh. Some modern groups refer to it as the anointing or the glory of God (Exodus 25:8 and Leviticus 15:16).

Sheloshim - the second period of mourning; thirty-day mourning period.

Shem Hameforash - the Ineffable Divine Name.

Shema - The main statement of Jewish belief: "Shema Yisrael Adonai Elohenu Adonai Echad" (Hear, O Israel: the L-rd is our G-d, the L-rd is One). Deut. 6:4-9.

Shemini Atzeret - Literally: the eighth day of assembly; conclusion of Sukkot...The day following Sukkot and the end of that festival.

Shemoneh Esre (al. Esray, Shmoneh Esreh) - Eighteen" - the number of blessings originally in the important part of the daily prayers recited in silence while worshipers stand--hence this name is applied to all such standing prayers, although the daily service now has nineteen and other services seven blessings. Combines adoration with entreaty. Also called Amidah (standing) or simply Tefillah (prayer).

Sheol - Afterlife; the netherworld.

Sheva Berachot (al. Birchot) - Literally: seven blessings; these are recited or chanted at a wedding ceremony prior to the sharing of a cup of wine by the bride and groom.

Shevarim - a shofar sound.

Shevat - Fifth month of Jewish year.

Shin - Hebrew letter (first letter of Shaddai).

Shitre Erusin - A betrothal contract.

Shivah - the first period of mourning; seven-day mourning period, the first day of which is the day of burial. The Jewish mourning period of seven days after the death of a family member.

Shivah haben - child of the week.

Sh'lamim - peace offerings.

Shmitah - Release--the seventh year in which the land lies fallow and debts are released or annulled...the Sabbatical year at the end of each seven year cycle.

Shmuel - a Sage of the Talmud.

Shochet - Ritual slaughterer, required by Jewish dietary laws for the preparation of kosher meat.

Shofar - Trumpet made from a ram's horn...a ram's horn blown on Rosh haShanah and during the month of Elul.

Shofar Hagadol - The Great Trumpet.

Shofetim (al. Shofitim) - Judges; Book of the Bible...a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy.

Shome'a Tefillah (al. Tefilah) - "The One Who hears prayer.." one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah.

Shomer - Literally: guardian; person who remains with the deceased so that the body is never left alone prior to burial.

Shovavim Tat - a series of winter weeks whose Mondays and Thursdays are observed as fast days.

Shuckle - To sway during prayer.

Shulchan Aruch - code of law applicable to today...the Book of codified Jewish Law, by Rabbi Yosef Karo.

Shulchan Orech - table set for of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

Shushan Purim - Purim celebration on Adar 15 by cities walled at the time of Joshua.

Sicarii - A fanatic group of Zealots literally meaning cut throats as they were involved in political assassination of both Jews and Romans.

Siddur (al. Sidur) pl. Siddurim - Prayer book....daily and sabbath prayer book.

Sidra pl. Sedarim (al. pl. Sidrot) - Bible portion of the week, read on Sabbath.

Sifra (al. Sifre) - Halakhic midrashim to Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.

Siloam - A pool of water in Jerusalem.

Simchah - Literally: joy; a happy event.

Simchat Torah - Literally: joy of the Torah; holiday marking the conclusion of the yearly cycle of Torah readings and the beginning of the new cycle; the final fall holiday.

Sivan - Ninth month of the Jewish year.

Siyum - the completion of the study of a Talmudic tractate. Sod - mystery.

Sofer pl. Soferim (al. pl. Sofrim) - A specially trained scribe.

Son of Man: An Hebraic title of the Messiah found in texts such as Daniel 7:13.

Sopherim: The Hebrew word for scribes. This word is also the title of a tractage in the Babylonian Talmud listing the laws of the scribes.

Sotah - a woman suspected of adultery.

S'phirah pl. S'phirot - Emanation(s) from the ultimate, infinite, indefinable G-d-head toward the palpable world; aspects of G-d.

Sukkah (al. Sukah) pl. Sukkot (al. pl. Sukot) - Literally: booths; name of the festival that commemorates the Israelites' wanderings in the desert after leaving Egypt...The Feast of Tabernacles or Booths.

Sukkot: A Hebrew word meaning tabernacles. This is the title of one of the three pilgrim-festivals held each year in Jerusalem. Sukkot, or Tabernacles, begins on Tishri (September 15) and lasts seven days.

Sumerian Law Code: The code of laws developed by the ancient non-Semitic people from Sumer (approximately 4000-3000 B.C.), which was a part of lower Babylonia. Its culture was the basis of the Babylonian civilization.

Sunagoge - #4864. sunagoge, soon-ag-o-gay'; from (the redupl. form of) G4863; an assemblage of persons; spec. a Jewish "synagogue" (the meeting or the place); by anal. a Christian church:--assembly, congregation, synagogue.

Synagoga: An image of a blindfolded wanton carrying a broken staff and crushed tablets of the Law used during the Middle Ages by the church to portray a fallen image of Judaism in contract to the victorious Church.

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Ta'am Ha'elyon - the "upper" mode of cantilation of the passage of the Ten Commandments.

Taanit - A section of the Talmud on Fasts...a fast day.

Taanit Chalom - a fast over a bad dream.

Tachanun - a prayer of supplication.

Tachath - #8478. tachath, takh'-ath; from the same as H8430; the bottom (as depressed); only adv. below (often with prep. pref. underneath), in lieu of, etc.:--as, beneath, X flat, in (-stead), (same) place (where . . . is), room, for . . . sake, stead of, under, X unto, X when . . . was mine, whereas, [where-] fore, with.

Tachrichim - Burial shrouds.

Tachtiy - #8482. tachtiy, takh-tee'; from H8478; lower most; as noun (fem. plur.) the depths (fig. a pit, the womb):--low (parts, -er, -er parts, -est), nether (part).

Taharah - Ritual purification of the deceased in preparation for burial....washing of the dead body.

Takhrikhim - Shrouds prescribed by Jewish law.

Tal - (Dew) The prayer for dew (in Palestine) recited on first day of Passover.

Tallit (al. Talit) - Prayer shawl with ceremonial fringes on four corners. A four-cornered cloth used by Jewish men as a prayer shawl as mentioned in Numbers 15:38.

Tallit Katan (al. Talit) - A small prayer shawl; a special undershirt with four corners each bearing tzitziyot.

Talmid pl. Talmidim - student, disciple.

Talmid Chacham - a scholar of the Torah.

Talmud - Comprised of both the Mishnah and Gemara, the Talmud is the collected legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis, edited around the year 500 CE. A Hebrew word meaning teaching, used as the title of a unique literary work containing the study and discussions of ancient scholars covering eight centuries, including the work passed down from the academies in Palestine and Babylon.

Tamid - the daily sacrifice in the Sanctuary.

Tammuz - Tenth month on the Jewish civil calendar.

Tana pl. Tannaim (al. pl. Tana'im) - rabbis in the Mishnaic period.

Tanach: The Hebrew term for the Old Testament Scriptures, derived from the initial letters of Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvin, which corresponds to the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and Hagiographa.

Targum pl. Targumim - (Translation) Traditionally the name given the Aramaic translation of the Bible, read to the populace in Babylonian periods. The custom of reading services in Aramaic following the Hebrew goes back to hundreds of years before the great diaspora. Except for some interpolations and paraphrases, the Targum Bavli, also known as the Targum Onkelos, is a very faithful translation. Less faithful to the text are the Targum Yerushalmi and others of fragmentary character.

Tashlich - Traditional Rosh haShanah afternoon ceremony in which individuals symbolically cast their sins (crumbs) into a body of water...the casting away of sin.

Tefilin - Prayer boxes worn during weekday morning worship. Tefillah (al. Tefilah) - Literally: prayer; also refers to the central group of prayers in each service, alternatively called the Amidah or Shemoneh Esre.

Tefillah Zakah (al. Tefilah) - "a prayer of purity" recited upon the advent of Yom Kippur before Kol Nidrey.

Tefillin: A Hebrew word for the phylacteries worn on the head and arms of Jewish men over the age of thirteen.

Teki'ah - a shofar sound.

Tekufah pl. Tekufot - one of the four seasons of the year.

Telos - #5056. telos, tel'-os; from a prim. tello (to set out for a definite point or goal); prop. the point aimed at as a limit, i.e. (by impl.) the conclusion of an act or state (termination [lit., fig. or indef.], result [immed., ultimate or prophetic], purpose); spec. an impost or levy (as paid):--+ continual, custom, end (-ing), finally, uttermost. Comp. G5411.

Tenach (al. Tanach) - Trilogy of Torah, Prophets, and Writings formed from initial letters of the Hebrew Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim...The Hebrew Bible.

Teruah - An awakening blast.

Teshuvah - Literally: turning or returning; a Hebrew term for repentance...Repentance from sin, spiritual reawakening. A desire to strengthen the connection between oneself and the sacred.

Tetragrammaton - the four Hebrew letters usually transliterated YHWH or YHVH that form a biblical proper name of God.

Tetzaveh - a portion in the Book of Exodus.

Tevet - Fourth month of the Jewish year.

Tevilah - Literally: immersion...immersing in a ritual bath. Therapeutae - Sternly ascetic Jewish party whose views and practices were kindred to the Essenes in Palestine.

Theophany: A physical manifestation or appearance of God to man.

Tikkun Chatzot (al. Tikun) - a prayer of lamentation over the destruction of the Sanctuary, recited at midnight.

Tikkun Leil Shavuot (al. Tikun) - Literally: service of the night of Shavuot.

Tikkun Olam (al. Tikun) - Repairing our broken world.

Tikkun Soferim (al. Tikun) (al. Sofrim) - the set of rules for the writing of a Torah Scroll.

Tishah Be'av - The ninth day of the month of Av; a day of mourning for the destruction of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem.

Tishri (al. Tishrei) (Ethanim) - First month of Jewish year. Titkabel - a verse in the kadish, "Let the prayers of Israel be accepted.." Todah - the thanksgiving offering in the Sanctuary.

Tohuw - #8414. tohuw, to'-hoo; from an unused root mean. to lie waste; a desolation (of surface), i.e. desert; fig. a worthless thing; adv. in vain:--confusion, empty place, without form, nothing, (thing of) nought, vain, vanity, waste, wilderness.

Toldah (al. towledah) - #8435. towledah, to-led-aw'; or toledah, to-led-aw'; from H3205; (plur. only) descent, i.e. family; (fig.) history:--birth, generations.

Torah - Literally: teaching; in its most narrow sense, it is the first five Books of the Bible, hand-written on a parchment scroll; in its broadest sense, it is all of Judaism, which flows from those Books...Instruction (teaching) or law.

Tosaphists: The authors of the Tosaphot, the additions written in the Talmud on detailed legal subjects.

Tosefta (al. Tocefta) - (Supplement) Anthology of tannaitic text parallel to Mishnah, but outside Mishnaic canon, and more expansive. Rabbi Nehemiah, second century, began the work; in the third century it was continued by Hiyya ben Abba and Oshaiah.

Treif (al. Trefah) - Literally: torn apart; food that is not ritually fit. It is the opposite of kosher.

Tru'ah - a shofar sound.

Trumah - a heave offering, contribution...the seventh portion in the Book of Exodus.

Tsaphoon - hidden.

Tu Bishvat - Fifteenth day of the month of Shevat; a minor holiday known as the New Year of the Trees, observed by planting trees.

Tzaddik pl. Tzaddikim (al. Tzadik) (al. pl. Tzadikim) - Chasidic sages were so called; they were often raised by their followers to the status of direct intermediaries with G-d, super-human miracle workers...a just man, righteous, upright.

Tzafun - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which the hidden afikoman is eaten.

Tzedakah (al. Tsedakah) - Literally: justice or righteousness; the Hebrew word we use for charity and charitable acts.

Tzedokim - Sadducees.

Tzidkatcha Tzedek - verses recited after the minchah prayer on Shabat.

Tziduk Hadin - a prayer of accepting G-d's Judgment.

Tzitzit pl. Tzitziyot - Ceremonially knotted fringes to be worn on all four-cornered garments. The Hebrew word for the fringes appended to each of the four corners of the prayer shawl according to Deuteronomy 22:12.

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Untaneh Tokef - a passage describing Heavenly Judgment added to prayer on Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur.

Ur'chatz - celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony Rachatzah - washing Rochtzah - the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal.

Ushpizin - the Seven Shepherds of Israel who "visit" every Jew's Sukah on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Uva Letzion - a prayer composed of a selection of Scriptural verses.

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Va'era - the second portion in the Book of Exodus.

Va'etchanan - the second portion in the Book of Deuteronomy.

Vav - Hebrew letter.

Vayechal - a paragraph from Exodus chapter 32 and 34 read on a public fast. Vayelech - a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy.

Vayechi - the last portion in the Book of Genesis.

Ve'ahavta - Literally: and you shall love; the prayer from Deuteronomy 6:5-9, that obligates Jews to love G-d and to teach Judaism to future generations; part of the Shema.

Velamalshinim - a passage relating to slanderers and informers, prescribed as a nineteenth brachah added to the eighteen benedictions of the amidah prayer.

Vezot Habrachah - the last portion in the Torah.

Vidui - confession.

Vidduy: The Jewish prayer of confession.

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Ya'aleh Veyavo - a passage added to the amidah prayer and to the Grace after the Meal on Festivals and New Moons when additional sacrifices were offered in the Sanctuary.

Yachatz - The breaking of the middle matzah of the ceremonial matzot during a Passover of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.

Yahrzeit - a day of memorial.

Yamin Noraim (al. Yamim) - Literally: The Days of Awe; the ten-day period beginning with Rosh haShanah and ending with Yom Kippur.

Yarmulke - The Yiddish term for skullcap; the Hebrew term is kipah.

Yavam - Husband's brother upon whom devolved the duty of marrying the former's widow if left without children....the brother-in-law.

Yavneh - A city that became the location of an academy and a central focus for the Jews once the Romans destroyed Jerusalem.

Yebamah - Under Biblical laws, childless widow who was commanded to marry late husband's brother, so that a child might be named after the departed.

Yeshivah pl. Yeshivot - Torah academy.

Yeshua - Hebrew name meaning salvation (same as Jesus).

Yetzer - Impulse.

Yetzer haRa - Impulse toward evil.

Yetzer haTov - Impulse toward good.

Yichud - Time spent alone together by the bride and groom immediately after the wedding ceremony...Room entered by bride and groom where the two, in the consummation of the marriage, become one.

Yitro - the sixth portion in the Book of Exodus.

Yizkor - ("May He remember") Prayers for the departed, recited on Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, last day of Passover, second day of Shavuot.

Yod - Hebrew letter.

Yom haDin - Literally: Day of Judgment; one of the names for Rosh haShanah.

Yom haPeduth - The Day of Redemption.

Yom haZikkaron - Literally: The Day of Remembrance; one of the names for Rosh haShanah.

Yom Kippur (al. Kipur) - Literally: The Day of Atonement.

Yom Kippur Katan (al. Kipur) - the eve of a New Moon, a "little" Day of Atonement.

Yom Teruah (Rosh haShanah) - The Feast of Trumpets.

Yom Tov pl. Yamim Tovim - a Festival Day, holiday.

Yoma - A tractate of the Mishnah on Yom Kippur.

Yoma Arichta - one "long" day, two days considered as one.

Yotzrot - liturgical poems added to the shacharit prayer.

Yovel - a Jubilee year at the end of a fifty year cycle.

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Zaqen - #2205. zaqen, zaw-kane'; from H2204; old:--aged, ancient (man), elder (-est), old (man, men and . . . women), senator.

Zeman Mattan Toratenu (al. Matan) - Literally: the Season of the Giving of Our Torah; another name for Shavuot.

Zeman Simchatenu - Literally: the Season of Our Joy; another name for Sukkot.

Zikhrnot - A portion of the Rosh haShanah service that deals with divine remembrance.

Zikkaron - A Memorial.

Zionism - The belief that there should be a Jewish national homeland in the historic land of Israel.

Z'roah Adonai - Arm of the Lord.

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The Books of the Original Testament

Bamidbar - Numbers
Bereshit (al. Bereishit) - Genesis
Chavakuk - Habakkuk
Chumash Hapikudim - The Book of Numbers
Divrey Hayamim - Chronicles
Dvarim (al. Mishneh Torah)- Deuteronomy
chah - Lamentations - read on Tishah Be'av
Ester - Esther - read on Purim
Hoshea - Hosea
Irmeyahu - Jeremiah
Kohelet - Ecclesiastes - read on Sukkot
Melachim - Kings
Mishlei (al. Mishley al. Mishlev) - Proverbs
Nechemiah - Nehemiah
Rut - Ruth - read on Shavuot
Shir Hashirim - Song of Songs - read on Pesach
Shmot - Exodus
Shmuel - Samuel
Shofetim (al. Shofitim) - Judges
Tehillim (al. Tehilim) - Psalms
Vayikra - Leviticus
Yonah - Jonah


Aharon - Aaron
Avraham - Abraham
Balshatzar - Belshazzar, King of Babylonia
Chavakuk - Habakkuk
Eliyahu - Elijah
Esav - Esau
Ester - Esther
Hoshea - Hosea
Irmeyahu - Jeremiah
Mattitiyahu - Hebrew name for Matthew
Menasheh - Manasseh
Moshe - Moses
Nechemiah - Nehemiah
Rechavam - Rehoboam, King of Judah
Rivkah - Rebekah
Rut - Ruth
Shimshon - Samson
Shlomo - Solomon
Shmuel - Samuel
Tzidkiyahu - Zedekiah, King of Judah
Yitzhak (al. Itzchak) - Hebrew name for Isaac
Ya'akov - Jacob
Yechezkel - Ezekiel
- Jeconiah, King of Judah
Yehoshua - Joshua
Yerovam - Jeroboam, King of Israel
Yeshayahu - Isaiah
Yochanan - Hebrew name for John
Yonah - Jonah
Yosef - Joseph


Asher - the Tribe of Asher
Binyamin - the Tribe of Benjamin
- the Tribe of Ephraim
- the Tribe of Issachar
- the Tribe of Levi
- the Tribe of Menashe
Reuven - the Tribe of Reuben
- the Tribe of Simeon
Yehudah - the Tribe of Judah
Zevulun - the Tribe of Zebulun
- Dan, Gad, Naphtali, Joseph

TRACTATES of the Mishnah

Zeraim - Order of the Mishnah (seeds) regarding ritual laws, blessings, prayers:
Berakhot, Peah, Demai, Kilayim, Shebiit, Terumot, Maaserot, Masser Sheni, Hallah, Orlah, Bikkurim

Moed - Order of the Mishnah (festivals) regarding the Sabbath and all festivals:
Shabbat, Erubin, Pesahim, Sheqalim, Yoma, Sukkah, Besah, Rosh haShanah, Taanit, Megillah, Moed Qatan, Hagigahashim - Order of the Mishnah (women) regarding marriage, divorce, relationships:
Yebamot, Ketubot, Nedarim, Nazir, Sotah, Gittin, Baba Qamma, Baba Mesia, Baba Batra, Sanhedrin, Makkot, Shabuot, Eduyyot, Abodah Zarah, Abot, Horayot

Nezikin - Order of the Mishnah (damages) regarding civil and criminal law:
Zebahim, Menahot, Hullin, Bekhorot, Arakhin, Temurah, Keritot, Meilah, Tamid, Middot, Qinnin

Kodashim - Order of the Mishnah (holy things) regarding sacrificial laws, Temple observance:
Kelim, Ohalot, Negaim, Parah, Tohorot, Miqvaot, Niddah, Makhshirin, Zabim, Tebul-Yom, Yadayim, Uqsin

Tohorot - Order of the Mishnah (purification) regarding things clean and unclean.